Description: Bronze medal. Lower portion depicts a wreath encircling the word: Mexico and the date: 1846. Listed on the border are Mexican War battles: Cherubusco, Chepultepec, San Pascual, Tobasco, Vera Cruz, Palo Alto, Buena Vista, Cerro Cordo. Safety pin on the reverse. Also etched on the reverse: R. Stancampiano, Musician, U.S.N. (U.S. Navy?). Accompanying note states: Mannie Leontina Stancampiano.
Description: Historical Note: This medal belonged to Mrs. William Cornelius Gaffney's father from the Mexican War of 1846. The National Association of Veterans of the Mexican War (NAVMW), founded in 1874, issued a bronze, shield-shaped medal to its members in 1876. The federal government never awarded medals to any Mexican War veterans apart from Generals Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor. New York and South Carolina awarded medals to the Mexican War veterans who served from those states. The conflict between the United States and Mexico in 1846-1848 had its roots in the annexation of Texas and the westward thrust of American settlers. On assuming the American presidency in 1845, James K. Polk attempted to secure Mexican agreement to setting the boundary at the Rio Grande and to the sale of northern California. Frustrated by the Mexican refusal to negotiate, Polk, on January 13, 1846, directed Gen. Zachary Taylor's army at Corpus Christi to advance to the Rio Grande. The Mexican government viewed that as an act of war. Eventually, after a series of confrontations and battles, on February 1848, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed, through which the United States gained California, Arizona, New Mexico, and the Rio Grande boundary for Texas, as well as portions of Utah, Nevada, and Colorado.
Citation information: ATF0158, Artifacts collection. Archives and Information Services Division, Texas State Library and Archives Commission.
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